Source: (1996) In: L. Siegel and P. Cordella (eds.), Readings in Contemporary Criminology. Chicago, IL: Northeastern University Press.

This essay discusses the relationship between conformity and social control in society. Morality is viewed from three types of social order existent in every society. The atomistically structured unity pattern is based on a calculus of coercion. An organically structured unity pattern is where social order is seen in terms of cooperation embodying a sense of social obligation. A personal mutualist unity pattern is based on the ethos embodied in personal trust. The author then calls for a transformation in law to a communicative form based upon communitarian principles, encouraging an extending of personal unity patterns.