Source: (2006) Journal of Moral Education. 35(4): 551-570.

Numerous initiatives, such as the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, the Race and Values in Education process of the Department of Education, the government-initiated (but now civic-led) Moral Regeneration Movement and the pervasive indigenous African philosophy of ubuntu have, over the past twelve years since South Africa’s transition to democracy, contributed materially to reforming and renewing the concepts of citizenship and morality in South Africa. Central to this debate have been issues of socio-economic justice for the vast majority of her historically disadvantaged citizens; a developing conception of the nature of citizenship in a country newly emerging from totalitarianism; a maturing understanding of the possible roles of faith within a democracy; and the struggle to define the relationship between citizenship, moral and religious education. This paper describes and critiques these initiatives and offers an analysis of the lessons each have contributed to the long road to citizenship in post-apartheid South Africa. (Author's Abstract)