Source: (1999) FORUM on Corrections Research 11 (September). Ottawa: Correctional Service of Canada.

Andrews and Dowden pursue the question whether principles of effective correctional treatment (human service, risk, need, general responsivity, program integrity, and core correctional practice) can be generalized to the female offender population with respect to reduction in recidivism. After introducing the issues, they describe their method for review of data, their analysis of the data, and their conclusions. From their review of the data, they maintain that adherence to those principles does distinctly reduce recidivism. They also indicate certain pertinent issues that need to be researched.


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