Source: (2000) Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology 6(3): 193-215.The millennial optimism being generated among nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the global civil society by the advent of the year 2000, and the United Nations Declaration of a Year and Decade of Education for a Culture of Peace and Nonviolence for the Children of the World, opens the possibility of a paradigm shift from dominance to mutualism in both interpersonal and interstate relations. Multiple year 2000 peace initiatives by NGOs present them with the challenge of a shift from turfism to collaboration in peacebuilding. Truth commissions offer new opportunities for peace work. Peace movements are learning to apply interactive problem-solving skills as they shift from protest to peace practitioner roles in war-torn areas. The power of the social imagination to envision peaceful futures is critical to all these efforts.