Source: (2007) In Emmanuel Clapsis, ed., Violence and Christian Spirituality An Ecumenical Conversation. Geneva, Switzerland: World Council of Churches. Pp. 242-254.

"Violence is a physical, psychological or structural act of denial, offence or destruction of (1) the presonhood of an individual - theologically speaking, a denial and offence of the imago Dei (the person - men and women - created in the image of God); (2) of just relations between human beings, and human beings and nature - theologically speaking, a denial or an offence against God's building of koinonia through creation, reconciliation and perfection, by which right relations become possible. With this definition I hope to show that violence is to be seen as a broad phenomenon on the individual as well as on the relational level. It is a human action - deliberately or unconsciously, always a denial and strong offence against the will of God. If the goal is no less than building a "culture of peace" as in the DOV, we need to address the phenomenon of violence in such a broad sense." (Abstract)