Source: (2001) In Community penalties: Change and challenges, eds. Anthony Bottoms, Loraine Gelsthorpe, and Sue Rex, 146-167. Cambridge Criminal Justice Series. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.While some have addressed accountability with respect to management issues, obligations to the community, responsibilities to victims, and other matters, Gelsthorpe addresses accountability with respect to the offender – namely, the accountability of the criminal justice system toward the offender. Specifically, she emphasizes accountability in terms of respecting offenders’ individuality and cultural diversity. This leads to discussion of human rights aspects of accountability and respect, and examination of social and cultural differences in relation to certain community penalties or community-based programs (pro-social modeling, cognitive skills programs, and parenting orders).