Source: (2001) In Reconciliation, Justice, and Coexistence: Theory & Practice, ed. Mohammed Abu-Nimer, pp. 3-23. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.

As his chapter title indicates, Galtung explores ways to cope with the effects of war and violence, with the goals being reconstruction, reconciliation, and resolution. After short definitions of certain key terms (justice, peace, reconciliation, coexistence, closure, and healing), he describes twelve different approaches to construing the relationship between perpetrator and victim and seeking reconciliation. Each approach consists of dense sets of assumptions that are cultural, philosophical, and even theological. Galtung cautions that no one of the approaches is adequate to dealing with the complexities of after-violence situations. Rather it is necessary to design good combinations for a given situation.