Source: (2003) In, Lode Walgrave, ed., Repositioning Restorative Justice. Devon: Willan Publishing. Pp. 43-64.As Anne Lemonne observes, advocacy and application of restorative justice have grown considerably since its emergence in the 1970s. This growth has led to a significant variety in rationales for and approaches to restorative justice. In this context, the development of victim-offender mediation has often been viewed as a key element in the implementation of restorative justice. At the same time, there has been ambiguity about the practical application of restorative justice in general and of victim-offender mediation in particular. Some have criticized aspects of the actual implementation of restorative justice, and others have criticized it for occupying a peripheral position in criminal justice. These criticisms have been aimed at times particularly at the practice of victim-offender mediation (or other alternative forms of dispute settlement such as community boards and group conferencing). With all of this in mind, Lemonne surveys developments in criminal policy and restorative justice in Norway and Denmark especially.