Source: (2001) Themes.Most cultures uphold the principle that all humans are equal in their humanity. From this flows the idea of justice as giving to the other what is due to them. In practice this means, accordingly, equal and nondiscriminatory treatment to equal cases. Colonization and racism are a negation of this and as such an injustice because fundamentally both deny that other human beings are equally human. The colonization of Africa was at the same time the introduction of racism to the continent. It was the double injustice of conquest in an unjust war and the denial of the humanity of the conquered. The ubuntu African understanding of justice as balance and harmony demands the restoration of justice by reversing the dehumanizing consequences of colonial conquest and by eliminating racism.