Source: (1999) Paper presented at the Restorative Justice Ireland Network 1999 conference.

Consedine argues that retributive justice, which has dominated criminal justice in Western countries for centuries, is ineffective, expensive, and pernicious. In contrast, ancient Celtic traditions of restorative justice, according to Consedine, have much to offer for a more productive approach to criminal justice. to make his points, Consedine sketches traditional Irish justice, Biblical justice (shalom and covenant, and justice in the New Testament), and restorative justice itself.