Source: (2005) Workshop 2: Enhancing Criminal Justice Reform Including Restorative Justice, 22 April, Item 8 (b) of the provisional agenda, at the Eleventh United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, Bangkok, Thailand. Downloaded 18 May 2005.

Restorative justice has become a global phenomenon in criminal justice systems. Resonating with, and in some cases drawing from, indigenous conceptions of justice, it offers both an alternative understanding of crime and new ways of responding to it. Restorative processes include victim-offender mediation, conferencing and circles; restorative outcomes include apology, amends to the victim and amends to the community. Restorative interventions are being used by police, prosecutors, judges, prison officials and probation and parole authorities. Restorative interventions have developed somewhat differently from region to region, but in many cases, countries have found it useful to adopt appropriate legislation. Human rights and other objections or critiques of restorative justice have been raised. Due in part to this, the UN has endorsed the Declaration of Basic Principles on the Use of Restorative Justice Programmes in Criminal Matters. Author's abstract.

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