Source: (2001) In Bringing restorative justice to adolescent substance abuse, ed. Kathryn G. Herr. Special issue of Youth & Society 33 (December), 143-168. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.The incidence of adolescent drug use increased through the 1990s, and the age at which drug use began decreased. Adolescent substance abusers are different from adult substance abusers in a number of ways, and adolescent substance abusers present a complex cluster of problems requiring multi-need treatment approaches The authors explore in this article the effectiveness of evaluated models of adolescent substance abuse treatment. Identifying four major models of treatment – 12 step, behavioral or cognitive behavioral, family based, and therapeutic communities – they explain each approach and summarize research assessing the effectiveness of each model. The authors also outline ongoing programs with evaluation protocols and methods that attempt to remedy concerns about the value of previous research.