Source: (2004) In, Shadd Maruna and Russ Immarigeon, eds, After Crime and Punishment: Pathways to Offender Reintegration. Devon, UK and Portland Oregon: Willan Publishing. Pp. 201-232.This study addressed why so many ex-inmates are rearrested and reincarcerated; the social-structural variables, impediments, and obstacles that contribute to recidivism; and how ex-inmates can beat "the perpetual incarceration machine." Abstract courtesy of National Criminal Justice Reference Service, www.ncjrs.org.