Source: (2006) In, Elster, Jon, editor, Retribution and Repatriation in the Transition to Democracy Cambridge University Press, New York, pp.164-178

Dealing, once the war is over, with those who collaborated with the German invader has taken a wide variety of forms: extrajudicial executions, purges in the private sector, trials by criminal courts. The analysis in this chapter on Belgium and the Netherlands is restricted to the activities of public authorities, such as the executive and the judiciary. This is a considerable limitation on the scope. The chapter, on the other hand, broadens the view by including the policies that were developed to reintegrate the black sheep after they had served their time in prison. Looking exclusively at the sanctions that were handed out produces, indeed, a one-sided view on the purges. Several measures were taken, some as soon as 1946-1947, to reduce the impact of the punishment. (excerpt)