Source: (1997) From, Widening the Circle: Collaborative Research for Mental Health Promotion in Native Communities. Proceedings of the Conference "widening the Circle: Developing Partnerships for Aboriginal Mental Health. September 26-28,1997. Montreal, Quebec. Pp.92-97.In this presentation, James Waldram critically examines issues relating to the efficacy of traditional healing, including questions as to whether and how traditional healing can be evaluated. He claims that scientific studies of traditional healing have often yielded ambiguous results. Why? Is it because the healing is ineffective? Or is it because scientific evaluative tools do not fit the nature, process, and results of traditional healing? These and other challenging and even controversial questions – many related to cultural issues – are discussed by Waldram as he looks at traditional healing in relation to standard measures of effectiveness.