Source: (2002) Conflict Management in Higher Education Report. 3(1), October. Campus Conflict Resolution Resources Project, Wayne State University, Michigan. Downloaded 5 December 2005.

In a review of college judicial affairs practices, Dannells (1996) argues that the historical development of the field has moved away from retributive punishment and toward rehabilitation and the development of student self-discipline. Nevertheless, the continuum of sanctions is still defined by punishment and outcasting, rather than restoration and reintegration. Students are given warnings, their privileges are restricted (such as being preventing from participating intercollegiate sports or in other cocurricular clubs), they are removed from campus housing, suspended, or ultimately expelled. Thus, a student already operating at the margins of social acceptability is progressively outcast from membership in the conventional college community. The community justice approach promotes inclusion over social distancing, emphasizing instead sanctioning strategies that rebuild conventional social ties to the college community. (excerpt)

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