Source: (2001) In Community penalties: Change and challenges, eds. Anthony Bottoms, Loraine Gelsthorpe, and Sue Rex, 183-199. Cambridge Criminal Justice Series. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.

Raynor begins by pointing to ambiguity in the widespread use of “community.â€? Amidst this ambiguity, an essential distinction must be made between the use of community as a descriptive term (simply signifying arrangements outside of institutions) and the use of community as a normative term (signifying the advocacy of greater cooperation, social bonding, and mutual help). With this distinction in mind, Raynor explores three issues: (1) community penalties in relation to conceptions of proportionality and “just desertsâ€?; (2) the degree to which community justice concepts offer practical alternatives; and (3) the possibility of reinterpreting rehabilitative community penalties within a restorative “community justiceâ€? paradigm so that they gain greater legitimacy and support.