Source: (2001) In Community penalties: Change and challenges, eds. Anthony Bottoms, Loraine Gelsthorpe, and Sue Rex, 41-66. Cambridge Criminal Justice Series. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.In light of contemporary social change, Liddle explores debates about the purpose and appropriateness of community penalties. There have always been such debates. Yet Liddle believes that certain changes make these issues more significant. In particular he examines two social trends: (1) developments and interconnections in the areas of crime prevention, community safety, and broader contextualization of offending (e.g., linking it to social exclusion); and (2) the rise of partnerships and multi-agency approaches in many areas, including response to crime and offending. His analysis of these changes includes discussion as to why these particular changes have occurred, why they have occurred now, and what all of it means for community penalties.