Source: (2006) London: Sage Publications Ltd.There is a widespread assumption that juvenile justice policies around the world are becoming increasingly punitive and less concerned with the protection and education of young offenders. While an examination of international juvenile justice policies certainly supports such a view, there are also examples of an increasing concern for the rights of juvenile offenders and a turn to restorative-like justice practices. The 13 chapters presented in this volume offer comparative case studies of juvenile justice policies in a number of countries: the United States, Canada, England and Wales, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Australia, Belgium, Scotland, Japan, Italy, and Finland. Chapter 1 traces the evolution of the American juvenile justice system from the 1960s through the early 2000s, analyzing its increasingly punitive approach and its current interest in early intervention of at-risk groups. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 offer critical analyses of recent juvenile justice developments in Canada, England and Wales, and the Netherlands, while Chapter 5 examines major juvenile justice developments experienced in France during the last quarter of the 20th century. Chapter 6 examines the emergence of restorative justice practices in New Zealand and criticizes current restorative practices as inaccurate co-options of Maori cultural practices. Juvenile justice developments and current trends in Australia and Belgium are explored in chapters 7 and 8, while chapter 9 turns to a review of the history of the Scottish juvenile justice system and an analysis of recent reforms. Chapter 10 analyzes recent changes in Japan’s juvenile justice policies and chapters 11 and 12 consider the tolerance exercised in the juvenile justice systems of Italy and Finland. Chapter 13 uses the collective knowledge provided in the previous chapters to identify complimentary and contradictory themes in contemporary international juvenile justice reform.