Source: (2001) In Community penalties: Change and challenges, eds. Anthony Bottoms, Loraine Gelsthorpe, and Sue Rex, 87-116. Cambridge Criminal Justice Series. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.Bottoms interacts in this chapter with debates about the effectiveness of community penalties; he does so principally by locating such debates within the framework of theories of compliance. He first argues that concern with effectiveness entails some conception of compliance. This leads to a consideration of four social and psychological processes involved in compliant behavior. Further exploration of the nature of compliance deals with issues of subjectivity, legitimacy, and interaction effects (e.g., between the social and psychological processes identified earlier). Bottoms then discusses major social changes in Britain in the last fifty years and their significance for the enforcement of community penalties.