Source: (2001) In Community penalties: Change and challenges, eds. Anthony Bottoms, Loraine Gelsthorpe, and Sue Rex, 226-240. Cambridge Criminal Justice Series. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.In this final essay, the editors discuss five themes or dimensions they deem critical for the future of community penalties: (1) the macro-political dimension; (2) the research dimension; (3) the public safety dimension; 4) the procedural dimension; and (5) the social dimension. On the basis of this discussion, they argue that the coherent development of community penalties must take account of a number of imperatives relating to social and political realities and research. Moreover, at the very end they emphasize what they consider to be one of the most important messages from the book – that effective community-based sanctions must reckon with the realities of the social lives of offenders and the communities in which they live.