Source: (1986) Missouri Journal of Dispute Resolution 1986: 109-129.

The type of mediation that is community-based and aimed at achieving social and political transformation is threatened by the growing mediation movement in the United States which has tended increasingly toward professionalization, bureaucratization, and legalization. Nevertheless, the university-based model as practiced at the University of Hawaii in Honolulu demonstrates elements in common with community-based, democratically oriented, citizen-empowerment programs.