Source: (1988) In Human adaptation to extreme stress: From the Holocaust to Vietnam, ed. John P. Wilson, Zev Harel, and Boaz Kahana, 219-238. New York: Plenum Press.Following World War II, assistance for surviving victims of the Holocaust did not include significant provision for their psychological needs. Danieli contends that a âconspiracy of silenceâ? existed between psychotherapists and patients who were survivors. To support this, Danieli examines psychotherapistsâ reactions to such patients as countertransference phenomena. Countertransference phenomena included defensive behaviors, âbystanderâs guilt,â? rage, shame and related emotions, dread and horror, grief and mourning, âprivileged voyeurism,â? and more. Danieli concludes with implications for training of psychotherapists to help them respond to massive trauma and its long-term effects.