Source: (2004) Papers presented at the Third Conference of the European Forum for Victim-Offender Mediation and Restorative Justice, 'Restorative Justice in Europe: Where are we heading?', Budapest, Hungary, 14-16 October. Downloaded 22 September 2005.

For this contribution I want to start by looking back into history and by drawing – as a historian - on my knowledge of the history of modes of domination; or even more general: of Formen der Vergesellschaftung modes of societalisation (my attempt at a translation) I hope that in this way we can learn more about the meaning and the function of community on the one hand and the state on the other by looking at their respective forerunners: I have started by differentiating two types of societal aggregates: societal groups (aggregates) characterised by ‘Genossenschaft’. i.e. associations of equals (forerunners of community) versus societal aggregates characterised by hierarchy and domination (they are not identical and it would need an additional effort to clarify the conceptual differences). (excerpt)