Source: (2000) Paper presented at the United Nations Crime Congress, Ancillary Meeting on Implementing Restorative Justice in the International Context. Vienna, Austria, 10-17 April.Pelikan begins with general comments on the status of recommendations made by the Council of Europe. A significant challenge in formulating recommendations and hence in their status lies in the diversity of contexts across an international (European) context. With all of this in mind, Pelikan discusses the guiding principles of the recommendations formulated and promulgated by the Council of Europe on the use of victim-offender mediation in penal matters. Examples of those guiding principles of mediation include voluntariness of participation, confidentiality, and impartiality.