Source: (2012) European journal of criminology 9(3) 323-334Slovenia is a parliamentary democratic republic that gained its independence after the disintegration of Yugoslavia in 1991. The same year, Slovenia also adopted its Constitution, which formally signalled the end of the communist system that had been dominant in the country up to that point (Ustava Republike Slovenije, 1991). The European Community recognized Slovenia as an independent state in January 1992, and the United Nations accorded it membership five months later. In the ensuing years, and thanks to its historical ties to Western Europe, as well as its strong economy and stable democracy, Slovenia has managed to transform itself into a modern state. In 2004, the country joined both the European Union (EU) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and in 2007 the Eurozone. This article provides an overview of trends in crime, developments in criminal justice, and the role of criminological scholarship in Slovenia over the last three decades, although, as it is also discussed below, criminology itself has a much longer history in the country.