Source: (2013) Paper presented at the "Closing the School Discipline Gap: Research to Policy" conference. Washington, DC January 2013.

School suspensions and expulsions resulting from zero tolerance disciplinary policies have directly expanded the “school-to-prison pipeline” while disproportionately and negatively affecting minority students. This paper reviews current research on zero tolerance, evidence for the effectiveness of restorative justice in schools as an alternative to punitive disciplinary policies, and local and national policy efforts to increase use of restorative practices in schools. The evidence shows that RJ is viable school policy strategy for keeping students in school while also useful for redefining the collaborative role of justice professionals and educators in the school setting to keep youth in school and out of juvenile justice systems. (author's abstract)