Source: (2013) In, David J. Cornwell, John Blad, and Martin Wright, eds., Civilising criminal justice: An international restorative justice agenda for penal reform. pp. 501-524.

After the fall of the rehabilitative ideal, the aim and the justification of punishment were also subjected to re-evaluation. The shift was once again towards general prevention. However, this concept came to be understood in a different manner. It was assumed that this effect could be reached not through fear (deterrence), but through the moral-creating and value-shaping effect of punishment. According to this idea, the disapproval expressed in punishment is assumed to influence the values and moral views of individuals. As a result of this process, the norms of criminal law and the values they reflect are internalised;people refrain from illegal behaviour not because such behaviour would be followed by unpleasant punishment, but because the behaviour itself is regarded as morally blameworthy. (excerpt)