Source: (2012) Journal of Transformative Education. 10(3):139-156.

Increasing numbers of adults are returning to a diverse array of higher education settings. Institutions that serve this population must consider the meaning of education to these students, their needs, and the modes of instruction most likely to meet those needs. Approaches to education have historically tended toward mechanistic and routine-oriented learning. However, adult learning is best accomplished through more flexible, collaborative, and transformative processes. Adult learning literature over the last several decades has offered challenges and insights into these two approaches. This literature has been rich in its exploration of diverse ideological and conceptual concerns related to the desire to create a more empowering and transformative experience of learning. This article provides a brief historical overview of education and learning as concepts with a focus on the insights of recent adult learning scholarship. The authors will also discuss how the emerging field of restorative practices offers new perspectives on these approaches. As a field that has developed independently of adult learning scholarship, but shares many of its commitments, restorative practices offer a fresh view on adult learning scholarship. (author's abstract)