Source: (2002) Paper presented at "Dreaming of a New Reality," the Third International Conference on Conferencing, Circles and other Restorative Practices, August 8-10, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Many Hmong people immigrated to the United States following the end of the Vietnam War, often after years in refugee camps. Many of them experienced severe trauma in their escape from Laos and in the camps. That trauma is compounded by cultural dislocation and loss of traditional identity and roles, creating enormous stress in Hmong families. The Hmong community in Minnesota is exploring the use of healing circles to support Hmong social service and public health workers on their own healing journeys so they can be more effective in their work with families.