Source: (1990) Justice Quarterly 7(3):515-528.

A study uses interview data to explore the emotional experiences of 30 white-collar offenders. Adjudication generated anger and rage, as well as shame and embarrassment, in the respondents. Both anger and rage have potentially dysfunctional effects in that they undermine commitment to the legitimacy of the law. Following Braithwaite (1989), it is argued that the U.S. justice system, which is based on "disintegrative" rather than "reintegrative" shaming, is counterproductive.