Source: (2003) In Nigel Biggar, ed., Burying the Past: Making Peace and Doing Justice after Civil Conflict. Expanded and updated. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. Pp. 325-330.

As Nigel Biggar points out, the focus of this book has been on burying the past after civil conflict within nations. The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, against targets in the United States constituted a different situation. They represented, not international conflict between nations, nor internal conflict within nations, but transnational conflict between peoples or cultures. Nevertheless, as the authors of chapters in this book have dealt with issues of both interpersonal and political conflict, peace-making, justice, reconciliation, and forgiveness, the discussions in the book do have bearing on the events of September 11 and their aftermath. With this in mind, Biggar reflects on the attacks of September 11 with respect to questions of justice, the United States response to the attacks, conditions behind the attacks, and issues of forgiveness.