Source: (2001) In Forgiveness and reconciliation: Religion, public policy, & conflict transformation, ed. Raymond G. Helmick, S.J., and Rodney L. Petersen, 183-193. With a foreword by Archbishop Desmond M. Tutu. Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press.

Lederach poses a basic but important question: What qualities characterize processes that have advanced reconciliation in settings of deep-rooted, violent conflicts? He identifies five qualities or characteristics of such processes. (1) Reconciliation is centered on relationships not issues. (2) Reconciliation is part of a multifaceted process or journey along which the third party “mediatorâ€? accompanies the disputing parties in this journey. (3) Reconciliation and humility are integrally connected. (4) Reconciliation includes the personal and interpersonal process, yet goes beyond to include community processes, the fabric of the larger community. (5) Reconciliation is a wandering in the desert- that is, it consists less of a linear, formulaic progression, and more of a fitful, long series of steps forward and backward and forward anew.