Source: (2005) The Australian and New Zeland Journal of Criminology vol.38 No. 3 pp.298-323, Australian National University, Australia

This study predicts self-initiated bullying from three variables: shaming, forgiveness and shame. Data were collected from 1875 Bangladeshi school children using the Bengali version of the Life at School Survey. Results demonstrated that reintegrative shaming and forgiveness were related to less bullying. High shame acknowledgement and low shame displacement into anger or blaming others were also associated with less bullying. Liking school protected children who experienced (a) less reintegrative shaming, and (b) more stigmatizing shaming at home. Equally, more reintegrative shaming and less stigmatizing shaming protected children against bullying when liking for school was absent. The forgiveness main effect on bullying was much bigger than the main effect or reintegrative shaming. These results are consistent with the view that forgiveness is a more powerful restorative practice than reintegrative shaming. (author’s abstract).