Source: (2011) Criminal Justice Policy Review 22(2) 219–234

Reentry usually refers to the transition from incarceration to community living. However, offenders diverted from prison to community-based restrictive sanctions also face the challenge of social reintegration. This study uses a postmatching case–control design to identify risk and protective factors for 1-year recidivism among completers of the Drug Treatment Alternative to Prison (DTAP) program in Brooklyn, New York. DTAP is a deferred-sentencing program targeting repeat drug-abusing felons arrested for drug sales. Participants are required to plead to a felony charge and spend 18 to 24 months in residential treatment. Forty-seven DTAP completers who had been re-arrested within a year of their dismissal are compared to 47 matched nonrecidivists. Results suggest that weak treatment engagement and social isolation considerably increase the risk of recidivism. Certain health conditions and/or medical needs also significantly correlate to reoffending. Implications for reentry policy making and research are discussed.(Author's Abstract)