Source: (2004) Paper presented at the "5th International Conference on Conferencing & Circles", organized by the International Institute for Restorative Practices, August 5, Vancouver, Canada. Downloaded 2 December 2004.

Ted Wachtel is president of the International Institute for Restorative Practices (IIRP), headquartered in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in the United States. As he comments at the beginning of this paper, for the last decade IIRP has been developing a comprehensive framework for theory and practice. This framework expands the restorative paradigm beyond criminal justice. The emerging field of “restorative practicesâ€? ties together theory and research in seemingly distinct fields of study and practice. To build a case for expanding the restorative paradigm, Wachtel discusses the fundamental hypothesis of the restorative practices approach, different approaches to social control, a continuum from that which is not restorative to that which is restorative, the expression of emotions in relationships, and shame and behaviors associated with it.