Source: (2011) Houston Journal of International Law. 34(1):57-85.

Rwanda's significant dilemma primarily involved a lack of adequate time and resources to prosecute numerous persons who had been reasonably accused in competent and regularly constituted judicial tribunals affording due process guarantees required by international law9 and to provide effective penalties for all of those who had been found guilty,10 but a lack of time and resources is not a recognizable limitation of Rwanda's international responsibility. With respect to the informal Gacaca, they failed to adequately guarantee customary human rights to be tried in a competent, independent, and impartial tribunal established by law; to be informed promptly and in detail of any charges; to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of one's defense; to communicate with counsel of one's own choosing (and, therefore impliedly, to have legal counsel); to examine or have examined witnesses against an accused; to not be compelled to testify against oneself or to confess guilt; and to have one's conviction and sentence reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.ii The sheer number of proceedings, ultimately reported at more than 1,100,000 cases,12 underscores the problem. (excerpt)