Source: (2004) IN, George Mair,ed., What Matters in Probation?. Cullompton, Devon,UK: Willan Publishing. Pp. 305-326.In this chapter Gill McIvor compares and contrasts âevidence basedâ? social work with offenders in Scotland with policy and practice in England and Wales. Scotlandâs legislative framework and organizational structures enable it to maintain a distinctive approach to penal policy. Hence, while certain directions in Scotland, such as the introduction of program accreditation and the identification of Pathfinders projects, are similar to developments in the United Kingdom, those efforts do not simply copy policy and practice from the UK. McIvor asserts in particular that developments in Scotland differ by building on a broader interpretation of What Works principles to include a greater emphasis on social inclusion and social justice, and by attempting to decentralize âownershipâ? of effective practice. In short, says McIvor, policy and practice in Scotland better recognize the need to put people back into the equation by stressing the importance of the supervisory relationship in enhancing offendersâ motivation not to re-offend. To explore these comparisons and contrasts, McIvor looks at criminal justice social work in Scotland, developments toward evidence based practice, and specific initiatives in Scotland relating to women offenders and drug offenders.