Source: (1996) New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Examines the relationship between the theologies of atonement and penal strategies. Atonement theology, particularly, the so-called 'satisfaction theory' interacted and reacted with penal thinking and practice especially in the 19th century. Expiation or atonement for wrongdoing seems to be one of the most powerful human impulses operating on both individual and collective levels. The author argues that atonement theology created a structure of affect which favored retributive policies. The last two chapters review theory and practice in the 20th century and offer concrete proposals for both theology and criminal and societal violence. The author contends that the balance needs to shift from satisfaction to biblical conceptions of redemption and reconciliation.