Source: (2004) In David R. Karp and Thom Allena, eds., Restorative Justice on the College Campus: promoting student growth and responsibility, and reawakening the spirit of campus community. Springfield, Ill. : C.C. Thomas. Pp. 194-202.

A number of states and the federal government in the United States have adopted hate crime statutes in the last decade or so. While there are various ways of stipulating what constitutes a hate crime in the statutes, notes Stephen Wessler, in general a hate crime can be defined as a criminal offense against a person or property where the offender is motivated by bias against another person’s race, religion, ethnic origin, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation. Institutions of higher education are not immune from the commission of hate crimes. In this chapter Wessler examines hate crimes in college and university settings. He examines types of hate crimes and their pervasiveness on campuses, bias-motivated harassment, and the impact of hate crimes and incidents of bias. This leads to his identification of effective responses to and prevention of such problems, with respect to both offenders and victims.