Source: (2001) In Forgiveness and reconciliation: Religion, public policy, & conflict transformation, ed. Raymond G. Helmick, S.J., and Rodney L. Petersen, 195-217. With a foreword by Archbishop Desmond M. Tutu. Philadelphia: Templeton Foundation Press.In this chapter, Staub and Pearlman investigate the impact of collective violence on victims and perpetrators, with particular emphasis on the history of Rwanda. Aware of the great difficulties involved in dealing with the aftermath of such violence, the authors nevertheless contend for the necessity of healing, forgiving, and reconciling. They explore the meanings of these terms, their interrelationships, and conditions that advance processes of healing, forgiving, and reconciling. Specific attention is given to conditions and issues such as empowerment of people, pursuit of the truth, rituals, justice, forgiveness, collaboration on shared goals, attention to children, and the behavior of leaders. Examples come from the authors’ experiences working with victims and perpetrators in Rwanda.