Source: (2008) In Joanna Shapland, ed., Justice, Community and Civil Society: A contested terrain. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing. Pp. 47-62.

"First, we shall look at the term 'community' and its political and sociological effects in the French context of a strongly state-centered political system. ... This will lead us to examine in detail both the principle and the implementation of several of these schemes, particularly victim-offender mediation, reparation orders, new schemes flowing from guilty pleas, and a few others. This is not a mere descriptive exercise: it provides an opportunity to comment on the way in which local civil society and its members are included in these innovative judicial processes and what kind of role they are meant to play. But the answers to these questions vary according to the political complexion of the government at the time." (Abstract)