Source: (2010) Traumatology 16(4) 5–16

This article reviews the strategies that have been applied across cultures in order to heal a wounded collective identity of societ- ies upon large-scale conflicts and wars.The issues of truth, memory, and different models of justice executed within this process are discussed. Also, differences and similarities between individual and collective “healing” are explored and commented on. A general cross-cultural normative framework for conflict solving, collective “healing” and justice is neither possible, nor desir- able. Models of restorative, retributive and reparative justice should be combined with reconciliation efforts. Societal problems should not be medicalized and individualized. Cultural sensitivity is crucial in designing proper strategies.The contextual model is the one that should be applied while making plans for rebuilding health and dignity after trauma on a collective level.“Healing” must be the outcome of structural and political changes and not their substitute.(Author's Abstract)