Source: (2007) PhD Thesis. Department of Sociology and Equity Studies. University of Toronto

This project is a case study that examines the emergence, applications and implications of section 718.2(e) of the Criminal Code of Canada which states, "A court that imposes a sentence shall take into consideration the following principles: :... all available sanctions other than imprisonment that are reasonable in the circumstances should be considered for all offenders, with particular attention to the circumstances of aboriginal offenders." This project maintains that the section follows a racist logic rather than addresses fundamental historical and structural problems