Source: (1999) Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal. 8:161.Popular perceptions of increasingly violent juvenile crime have helped drive juvenile justice in the United States from its original rehabilitative focus toward a âget toughâ? retributive system. Amanda Paye states that this âget toughâ? approach exemplifies what is wrong with the American juvenile justice system. She contends that it only worsens social problems that lead to crime. In response, Paye urges the application of restorative justice ideas and processes to juvenile justice. She points to the examples of New Zealand and several Australia states in restructuring their systems along restorative justice lines to emphasize the role of family and community in addressing criminal wrongdoing. This approach led to the development of the conferencing model â a facilitated style of mediation involving offenders, victims, families, and support persons to resolve the effects of crime. Paye thus advocates that United States juvenile justice systems should commit themselves to restorative justice and the conferencing model.