Source: (2005) In Wanda D. McCaslin, ed., Justice as Healing: Indigenous Ways. Writings on Community Peacemaking and Restorative Justice from the Native Law Centre. St. Paul, MN: Living Justice Press. Pp. 108-120.

"Many contemporary tribal communities have dual justice systems. One is based on what can be called an American paradigm of justice; the other is based on what can be called an Indigenous paradigm." (excerpt)