Source: (2007) in, Gerry Johnstone and Daniel W. Van Ness, eds., Handbook of Restorative Justice. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing. pp. 559-579

"Walgrave addresses the challenge emerging from the erosion of the belief -- which was prominent in the early development of the restorative justice movement and which still lingers -- that there is a crystal-clear distinction between restorative justice and more conventional conceptions of criminal justice. As restorative justice has expanded its scope, many proponents have concluded that there may be challenges that restorative responses are incapable of addressing, thus necessitating use of conventional criminal justice processes and philosophies. Welgrave does not agree, and in this chapter he addresses four of those challenges: how to deal restoratively with the public dimensions of criminal wrongdoing; how to deal restoratively with non-cooperative offenders; how to ensure that wrongdoing is adequately (and restoratively) censured; and how to ensure that outcomes of restorative processes are just." (excerpt)