Source: (2001) In Community penalties: Change and challenges, eds. Anthony Bottoms, Loraine Gelsthorpe, and Sue Rex, 1-15. Cambridge Criminal Justice Series. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing.In this essay, Bottoms, Gelsthorpe, and Rex introduce the book they have edited. Their chapter begins with a sketch of the challenges that currently face community penalties. They detail significant changes in the nature of community penalties over the last two decades, including transitions from understanding community penalties as an alternative to custody, to punishment in the community, to a focus on public protection, and to an emphasis on âwhat works.â? They then point to issues concerning community penalties in relation to the youth justice system in the United Kingdom, particularly following significant legislative measures in the late 1990s.