Source: (2001) In Restorative justice for juveniles: Conferencing, mediation and circles, ed. Allison Morris and Gabrielle Maxwell, 195-226. With a foreword by DJ Carruthers. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Noting the controversy around police involvement in restorative justice conferencing, Young uses research findings to explore some of the key issues. The research findings derive from three large-scale police-led projects in conferencing: Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (USA); Canberra, Australia; and the Thames Valley Police (England). Issues addressed by Young include the following: police power and punishment; whether the process of conferencing can turn into a form of punishment; whether the shaming aspect of these conferencing projects (which are influenced by the theory of reintegrative shaming) is essentially punitive in effect; the practice of shaming and disciplining; procedural fairness and police accountability; and whether police-led outcomes are disproportionate or unfair.