Source: (2000) Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 567: 198.Cohn and Hinkle contend that the trend toward tougher and tougher penalties in corrections is not the solution to juvenile violence. The criminal justice system is not only the most costly place to deal with the problem but also the least effective means to deal with it. Family and community structures – religion, health care, education, housing, employment, recreational facilities, and more – must play an active role in combating juvenile delinquency. More time and resources should be invested in preventive measures – such as mentoring programs, community schools with after hours programs, counseling services, and continuing education programs – to reduce the need to respond to actual problems.